Khalid S. Mahran


Khalid S. Mahran, MD, MS, FACP, is an academic physician with experience in general internal medicine, nephrology, dialysis, and transplantation. He is board certified in internal medicine and nephrology and a clinical hypertension specialist. He is a certified physician educator and advisor with clinical teaching experience of over twenty-five years. He supervised and trained renal fellows, medical residents, students, and physician extenders.

 Dr. Mahran authored the work “Learning Clinical Reasoning: A Reflective Practice Model” (1) and the word “Clinical Inquiry Exercise,” which highlights the concept of reflective inquiry. (2)  He designed and developed “Clinical Reasoning Essentials: A Simulation-Based Course to Reduce Cognitive Errors among Healthcare Professionals,” Texas Educators Academies Collaborative for Health Professions Southeast Educational Symposium (TEACH-S), 2020.

Clinical Metalearning is the key to developing medical expertise. It involves understanding how all pieces of the entire clinical puzzle fit together. Clinical Metalearning is an active, integrative, and inquiry-based process (2) It is a mix of active study and action-learning with reflection on experience. It enables medical trainees and clinicians to memorize the founding knowledge (i.e., illness script) in the clinical context and utilize management algorithms (i.e., management script) to solve clinical problems.

Our Courses

Clinical Reasoning Module

Formulating a working diagnosis and management plan requires integrating a knowledge base with clinical reasoning skills to solve medical problems and make treatment decisions.

Nephrology Module

Clinical reasoning is context specific. Therefore, A general domain applies to all disciplines, and specialty domains relate to cardiology, nephrology, dermatology, etc. In addition, fast thinking is dominant in emergencies.

A Reflective Inquiry

Adaptive expertise can be achieved through the awareness of rationality, critical thinking, metacognition, and embracing creativity, lateral thinking, and innovation. This course is a collaborative learning exercise with the help of medical trainees, peers, and global networking. 

Our Books

Clinical Reasoning

This book about clinical reasoning is designed for medical trainees and clinicians to understand the basics of clinical reasoning and how to reflect on practice to develop adaptive expertise. We need to learn what conjecture is and how logical is the information, evidence, conclusion, and decision. This is crucial to promote metacognition and clinical acumen. The book introduces the concepts of reflective inquiry, situational awareness, clinical delta, clinical homeostasis, and reasoning safeguard.

This book is your guide to learning elements of clinical reasoning and how to develop adaptive expertise as a healthcare provider. It includes illustrative real-life examples of how to reflect on practice and perform clinical inquiry, debriefing, and metacognition.

Some of Our Book’s Topics

Clinical Investigation

Clinical Metacongnition

Minute Clinical inquiry

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